One aspect of the story of Samuel that has always made me curious was the Levitical priest. Samuel may have been “adopted” by Eli, but he was from the wrong Tribe. He assumed the role of prophet and clearly was a judge (leader of Israel), but he could not be a priest. Eli and his sons died on the same day, so that left his grandsons. They would have needed to be trained. I had written in another post that Samuel may have done this, but I had not counted on the other part of the family that had gone very quiet.
Aaron had four sons during the Exodus. The first two died because they did not have proper respect for God. That left Eleazar and Ithamar. Eli was a descendant of Ithamar. Eleazer’s side of the family had “disappeared” for some reason.
Eli’s side of the family was removed from serving as a priest by Solomon. The two graphics show the list and the family tree of Aaron’s sons. I used the NIV and various concordances to make the list. The websites will help with further study.
Jehoshaphat was a godly king who did good and tried to have his people follow in the ways of the Lord. He took measures to protect against Israel (2 Chronicles 17:1), had the people taught from the Book of the Law by priest (vs. 9), rid the land of false worship (vs. 6), reformed the judicial system (19:4-10), lead Judah’s army against a huge invading army (20: 1-30), and took care of his family (21:3). I think it is fair to say that he loved God and personally choose the “high road” but he did have a really alarming mindset.
This mindset shows itself in four things Jehoshaphat did. In 2 Chronicles 18:1 he aligned himself/Judea with Israel (the Northern Kingdom) by marriage; he allowed/arranged the marriage of Jehoram to Athaliah (Ahab’s daughter). In 2 Chronicles 18: 2 he agreed to go with Ahab to get Ramoth Gilead back from Aram and he went with Joram in 2 Kings 3 to attack Moab. Then in 2 Chronicles 20: 36 it talks about a trade agreement with Ahaziah Ahab’s son. (In the passages below I combined Kings and Chronicles where these books cover the topic. The book of Kings talk about both Israel and Judah while Chronicles primarily covers the kings of Judah.)
I and II Kings with I and II Chronicles From the Conservative Version
1Ki 22:45 2Ch 20:34 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoshaphat, and his might that he showed, and how he warred, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah and written in the history of Jehu the son of Hanani, which is inserted in the book of the kings of Israel.
1Ki 22:46 And he put away out of the land the remnant of the sodomites, who remained in the days of his father Asa.
1Ki 22:47 And there was no king in Edom; a deputy was king.
2Ch 20:35 And after this Jehoshaphat king of Judah joined himself with Ahaziah king of Israel. The same did very wickedly.
2Ch 20:36 And he joined himself with him to make ships to go to Tarshish.
1Ki 22:48 2Ch 20:36 Jehoshaphat made ships of Tarshish to go to Ophir for gold in Ezion-geber, but they did not go, for the ships were broken at Ezion-geber.
1Ki 22:49 Then Ahaziah the son of Ahab said to Jehoshaphat, Let my servants go with thy servants in the ships. But Jehoshaphat would not.
2Ch 20:37 Then Eliezer the son of Dodavahu of Mareshah prophesied against Jehoshaphat, saying, Because thou have joined thyself with Ahaziah, LORD has destroyed thy works. And the ships were broken so that they were not able to go to Tarshish.
1Ki 22:50 2Ch 21:1 And Jehoshaphat slept with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the city of David his father. And Jehoram his son reigned in his stead.
2 Chronicles 19: 2 states the problem, “Should you help the wicked and love those who hate the Lord.” (NIV) Right away many Christians would say what about evangelism or how can we ever be a witness to the unsaved? I think with a little meditation it is easy to see this is not what Jehoshaphat was doing, he was “yoking” himself to people who had rejected much of the Laws of God on purpose and set up another religious experience. The most destructive of these four acts was the marriage alliance with the royal family of Baal-worshipping Ahab and Jezebel. The three “business deals” are bad because it mixed the unbelievers into his nation that he was trying to change to follow God. So the warning is to pastors and heads of households – watch what you allow/bring into your lives and that of your charges. In a future post, I will look at the results of Jehoshaphat’s choices.
Historical figures, types and shadows of the Church, part of the Story, or two kings who had problems; these and more could apply to the men found in 1 Kings 11:26 – 1 Kings 15:10. The story of Rehoboam as David’s descendant and king of Judah is found in 2 Chronicles 9:29 – 2 Chronicles 14:1. The reason these two are worded the same in many places is because they were taken from a common source (what ever it was) but written for different audiences. Possible sources may be from the pens of people involved in the story such as Iddo the Seer or even the chronicles of the kingdom.
As a writer it was fun to image the conflicts and possible twist that could make this story a bestseller. The probability that they knew and worked together during Solomon’s lifetime may have set the stage for a lot of what happened in the story. When Rehoboam saw the fugitive, Jeroboam, at his inauguration it might have tipped the scale to his bad decision and been some of the fuel for the continual warfare.
Their names are very similar in meaning: Rehoboam is “the people will/have enlarge or expand”; Jeroboam “the people will contend or increase.” In the Book of Kings there are two Jeroboams, both are bad and not related. (see Bethel in The Places of Rehoboam and Jeroboam) Both of these men have a son named Abijah or worshipper of Jah. Jeroboam’s died and had a decent burial because God found something good in him; Rehoboam’s son became king of Judah and confronted Jeroboam in battle. (That may have fed the warfare also.)
Getting advice on something is normally good but these two clearly are in their own league. Rehoboam sought counsel on how to answer the people and did what he wanted to do while Jeroboam apparently never listened to the prophet about doing the right thing in the eyes of the Lord.
Josephus in his writings The Antiquities of the Jews in Book Eight chapters 8, 9, and 10 tell the story of these two men. Most of it is just a retelling of what is found in the Bible but Chapter Nine was about the “man of God from Judah.” Josephus identifies him as Jadon The Prophet and adds some interesting plot twist to the Biblical story. The “old prophet” is portrayed as a very wicked man who may have helped Jeroboam in the evil he did by “killing/lying to” Jadon and then discrediting what he had said to Jeroboam. If you are studying this time period it maybe worth the effort to read it; if nothing else it would liven up the story.
The iconic words “Here I am. Send Me!” I do believe that many Christians have said these words and truly meant them. Isaiah was not the only one to have said the phrase “Here I am.” As I studied those words I saw something that was not really a surprise but it does show just how loving our God is.
In the chart are all of the times that “here I am” is used in the NIV. The Hebrew word for “here I am” is hinneh and is used to call attention to something or to enliven a narrative. The Greek word is idou and means basically the same thing as the Hebrew word. (Note: Some of these references are different words/phrases but those also are for calling attention to something.) The words hinneh and idou are actually translated many different ways and they are used many times in Scripture. The verses in blue are people just getting someone’s attention. The rest however are God calling to someone first and the people are answering to God’s call or God is just trying to get our attention by saying “here I am.” You will notice God does/did a lot of calling to people.
Some of these calls were very specific for the moment and person but in Isaiah 58 and Revelation 3:20 the Father and Jesus called and are calling so we can find them. Sometimes we have to remember that God is not the one who is lost but the One who is leading.
What is Pelagianism? That is ok I didn’t know either until I started reading a book about saints. In the early 400’s saints of God were having to battle teachings and teachers who were trying to put great sounding ideas into the church of God. The only problem they were not biblical ideas.
Pelagianism basically says all mankind is good and unaffected by Adam’s fall and that “original sin” has no affect on us. It goes further to say that we can obey God without His “help” and earn our own salvation. St. Augustine of Hippo and others battled to stop that heresy and several councils of the Church agreed. But just to show that the devil likes to recycle ideas. Rousseau, the author of Emilie, incorporated the idea of the basic goodness of mankind (children) into his book and teachings. His liberalism has been a foundational stone for many educational philosophies since then and has made it way into modernism and post-modern thought.